Often, post-positivist theories explicitly promote a normative approach to IR, by considering ethics. Emmanuel Levinas’s critique of ontology and his radical renewal of ethics has had a lasting influence well beyond the confines of philosophy. "comments": true, MORTON, ADAM DAVID We cannot, of course, rule out of social scientific debates discussions of intellectual history, fundamental social theory, ontology and epistemology, the motivations or constraints on individual research-ers, policy purposes, and normative values. Armağan Emre ÇAkır, Gestalt Ontology in International Relations: The Case of European Integration, ... On What Epistemology Is the Gestalt Ontology Based? An individual’s point of view, values, believes and others will impact our approach towards the choice of research pathway; and the … "clr": false, 7 Hollis, Martin and Smith, Steve, ‘Beware of Gurus: Structure and Action in International Relations’, Review of International Studies, 17 no. "peerReview": true, We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. more satisfying the state of international relations. Positivist theories aim to replicate the methods of the natural sciences by analysing the impact of material forces. Pragmatism as Ontology, Not (Just) Epistemology: Exploring the Full Horizon of Pragmatism as an Approach to IR Theory SIMONFRANKELPRATT University of Toronto This article is in many ways a pragmatist’s critique of pragmatism in in-ternational relations (IR), focusing on what practices scholars have en-gaged in by drawing upon pragmatism and how to resolve problems that … These differences are reflected in their basic claims and theoretical referents (epistemology, ontology, and methodology). Epistemology means the study of scope and nature of knowledge or the theory of … Ontological issues pertain to what exists, whereas epistemology focuses on the nature, limitations, and justification of human knowledge. ‘The Ontologist Always Rings Twice: Two More Stories About Structure And Agency in Reply to Hollis and Smith’, above. Philosophical issues related to theoretical and methodological developments in counseling are addressed, especially related to epistemology (theory of knowledge) and ontology (theory of reality). "metrics": true, An empirical researcher gives cognition (or understanding) … On the one hand, by conceiving the existing order as the framework for theorizing, problem-solving approaches are epistemologically limited to addressing the politics of recurrence and regularity. The first problem is … A quick google search would have done it, so next time, please don't be lazy. It includes the questions of how entities are grouped into basic categories and which of these entities exist on the most fundamental level. Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. During the late 1980s and the 1990s, debate between positivists and post-positivists became the dominant debate and has been described as constituting the Third "Great Debate" (Lapid 1989). Epistemology is also ‘concerned with providing a philosophical grounding for deciding what kinds of knowledge are possible and how we can ensure that they are both adequate and legitimate.’ (Maynard, 1994:10) in Crotty, Ibid, 8). Ontology vs Epistemology. }. The word ontology is derived from the Greek words ‘ontos’ which means being and ‘logos’ which means study. Ontology and Epistemology. In a recent article in this journal, Øyvind Østerud attacks postmodern interventions in international relations theory. The first problem is … and Over the past decade-and-a-bit, numerous scholars of international relations (IR) have drawn upon the theories associated with the school of philosophy called American Pragmatism to examine issues of interest to the field. Post-positivist epistemology rejects the idea that the social world can be studied in an objective and value-free way. and Total loading time: 0.316 In this reply the epistemological claims of Østerud are examined. "lang": "en" Analytically, methodologies lie between epistemology and method: an epistemology (a theory of knowledge, itself informed by an ontology) gives rise to a particular set of possible methodologies (ways of approaching a research problem; here, labeled empiricist or interpretivist). Awareness of philosophical assumptions will increase quality of research and can contribute to the creativity of the researcher. This is an international relations quesiton! The historic part shows the evolution of the international relations theory from being a part of political philosophy to its emergence as a special branch of political science, which is essential to understand the key ideas of the IR science. Ontology deals specifically with the philosophical study of the nature of … This is an excerpt from International Relations Theory – an E-IR Foundations beginner’s textbook. This data will be updated every 24 hours. September 2008; Authors: Eric Engle. 67-75. "relatedCommentaries": true, Civilizational borders, racial borders, or other cultural borders are often taken as constants to think from rather than internally unstable variables with a considerable crisis potential for both IR theory and practice. This article explains the concepts of epistemology and ontology with examples. 2017. "subject": true, Kocks, Alexander Ontology. Dr Sally Vanson. 2011. Cooper, Andrew F Social systems theory is described as an epistemologically and ontologically significant challenger to psychological theory, which has traditionally predominated as a foundation for counseling approaches. It is vital to recognize that both ontology and epistemology are mainly based on the researchers beliefs and personal persuasion about the conception of world and have certain methodological consequences (Hay, 2002: p. 61). Received: February 15, 2017; "International Relations Theory is an excellent and comprehensive analysis of the main theories in the field of international relations. Reality exists in the outside world and what we perceive is the reality itself. While disagreements over issues of purpose, epistemology, and ontology still fuel much of disciplinary debates, it is reasonable to consider that the growth of (various forms of) Constructivism has made some assertions less This video explains the basic relationship between research paradigm, ontology, and epistemology in academic research settings. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdom Licensed under Creative Common Page 5 While ontology refers to the nature of knowledge and reality, epistemology concerns the very basis of knowledge-whether this is hard, … Constructivism’s arrival in IR is often associated with the end of the Cold War, an event that the traditional theories such as realism and liberalism failed to account for. International relations theory is the study of international relations (IR) from a theoretical perspective. The paper examines ontological presuppositions and epistemological branches of Peace and Conflict Studies. 4 (1991), pp. He claims that postmodernism is not a serious academic approach, indeed that it threatens the very basis of scholarship. Pilath, Angela Download your free copy here. View all Google Scholar citations It provides criteria for distinguishing different types of objects (concrete and abstract, existent and nonexistent, real and ideal, independent and dependent) and their ties (relations, dependencies and predication). Epistemology and ontology are two different branches of sociology. However, any analysis grounded in feminist ontology is well served to set a goal of consistency in epistemology, methodology, and method. Epistemology denotes the knowledge as perceived by people and ontology denotes actual knowledge. Yet in the first substantive chapter of the volume, David Marsh, this time with Paul Furlong, defines ontology (correctly) as “a theory of being” and suggests that epistemology relates to “what we can know about the world” and (more problematically) “how we can know it” (2002, 18–19). The book shows how each significant event or institution is analyzed through each of the theories. Plus, free two-day shipping for six months when you sign up for Amazon Prime for Students. 01 January 1996. It deals with whether an objective reality exists, how we know our perception of it is accurate, and the ways that informs what we know. dedicated to the analysis of where theory is heading to. Betts, Alexander Epistemology essentially determines the relationship between the researcher and reality and is rooted in the ontological assumptions (as noted above). Query parameters: { 14 Feyerabend, Paul, Against Method (London, 1975)Google Scholar. Engaging with ontology and epistemology can lead to a benign disruption of, for example, a rational choice theorist's belief in the predictive capability of political science through highlighting the open and contingent nature of the social world, or a ‘malestream’ political scientist's assumptions of objectivity through feminist critique. Over the past decade-and-a-bit, numerous scholars of international relations (IR) have drawn upon the theories associated with the school of philosophy called American Pragmatism to examine issues of interest to the field. What on earth are Ontology and Epistemology? One example of this is “analytical eclecticism,” and it well illustrates how pragma… Two of these branches are ontology and epistemology. Copyright © British International Studies Association 1996, Hostname: page-component-b4dcdd7-z76xg Keywords Epistemology, Global International Relations, International Relations theory, Methodology, Ontology, Sufism References Abou-Bakr, O ( 1994 ) Abrogation of the mind in the poetry of Jalal al … Ontology is the theory of objects and their ties. This book challenges received notions of ontology in political theory and international relations by offering a psychoanalytically informed critique of depoliticisation in prominent liberal, post-liberal, dialogic and agonistic approaches to pluralism in world politics. 1 Vivienne Jabri and Stephen Chan. 9 Giddens, Anthony, The Constitution of Society (Cambridge, 1984), p. xxGoogle Scholar. third year IR theory curriculum at Wits University, has engaged with discipline’s knowledge structures as well as its ontology and epistemology to develop a knowledge plural curricula. Axiology: Relativism (post-modernism and neo-liberals) v. Cognitivism (classical liberals) 19 IV A NEW NATURAL LAW THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 19 Conclusion 23 . Epistemology, Postmodernism and International Relations Theory: A Reply to 0sterud STEVE SMITH Department of International Politics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth In a recent article in this journal, 0yvind 0sterud attacks postmodern interventions in international relations theory. 2016. Positivist ontology employs a realist epistemology based on empiricism. We welcome this engagement with our continuing discussion of the relationship between epistemology and ontology in international relations theory, and will confine our response to three main points: their interpretation of our argument, their use of the work of Giddens, and their arguments about the nature of epistemology in International Relations. The Greek word philosophy means love for knowledge. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. We can distinguish: a) formal, b) descriptive and c) formalized ontologies. Post-positivist epistemology rejects the idea that the social world can be studied in an objective and value-free way. eLearning Support Initiative at E-International Relations; No headers. BIELER, ANDREAS 250–251Google Scholar. Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation. This chapter introduces the reader to how ontological and epistemological positions are embedded within the biomedical, biopsychosocial, and critical alternative models of human functioning. This view refers to the nature of reality and the nature of knowledge that are also called ontology and epistemology in research language. Your ontology and epistemology create a holistic view of how knowledge is viewed and how we can see ourselves in relation to this knowledge, and the methodological strategies we use to un/discover it. Authors; Authors and affiliations; John D. Hathcoat; Cara Meixner; Mark C. Nicholas; Living reference work entry . Ontology and Epistemology are branches of philosophy. Thus, Smith is … Ontology, on the other hand, is actually a subset of metaphysics, which is in turn a branch of philosophy. Slevitch (2011) states that ontology (onto in Greek ‘being’ and logia ‘science, study, theory’) can be defined as the study of reality or things that comprise reality. In a recent article in this journal, Øyvind Østerud attacks postmodern interventions in international relations theory. A key difference between the two positions is that while positivist theories, such as neo-realism, offer causal explanations (such as why and how power is exercised), post-positivist theories focus instead on constitutive questions, for instance what is meant by 'power'; what makes it up, how it is experienced and how it is reproduced. Epistemology is an area of philosophy that is concerned with the creation of knowledge, focusing on how knowledge is obtained and investigating the most valid ways to reach the truth. Ontology, Epistemology, Axiology: Bases for a Comprehensive Theory of Law. Ontology vs Epistemology . His main claims are examined and found to be superficial and misleading. Feminist work in International Relations (IR) does not adhere to any one epistemology, methodology, or method. "languageSwitch": true It tries to figure out what constitutes as knowledge. 1 Citations; 1 Mentions; 1.7k Downloads; Abstract. There are three significant branches within epistemology: empiricism, rationalism and transcendental philosophy. "crossMark": true, A philosopher is someone who loves to know and understand the world. Though they have engaged questions of ethics and of social ontology, likely the most popular and successful employment of pragmatist philosophy has focused mainly on issues in the philosophy of science. Keywords Epistemology, Global International Relations, International Relations theory, Methodology, Ontology, Sufism References Abou-Bakr, O ( 1994 ) Abrogation of the mind in the poetry of Jalal al … It describes the narrower use of the concepts ‗ontology‘ and ‗epistemology‘ as sub-branch and branch of philosophy respectively and later focus To condense this argument, gender ontology as epistemology is gender epistemology as ontology. Ontology and epistemology play very significant role in philosophy but also in the work of political scientists because both terms are used in relation to the discussion of theoretical issues in their thesis. 15 Hollis and Smith, ‘Beware of Gurus’, p. 409. 405–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Engle, Eric, Ontology, Epistemology, Axiology: Bases for a Comprehensive Theory of Law (September 15, 2008). Let us try and simplify these complex topics. Ontology is the branch of philosophy that studies concepts such as existence, being, becoming, and reality. Keywords: Knowledge structures, Epistemologies of the south, International relations theory curricula, Knowledge plurality. JEL Classification: K33, K10, K30. We welcome this engagement with our continuing discussion of the relationship between epistemology and ontology in international relations theory, and will confine our response to three main points: their interpretation of our argument, their use of the work of Giddens, and their arguments about the nature of epistemology in International Relations. Feature Flags last update: Thu Dec 03 2020 19:59:12 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Philosophical issues related to theoretical and methodological developments in counseling are addressed, especially related to epistemology (theory of knowledge) and ontology (theory of reality). Etymology. Introduction. Pragmatism as Ontology, Not (Just) Epistemology: Exploring the Full Horizon of Pragmatism as an Approach to IR Theory SIMONFRANKELPRATT University of Toronto This article is in many ways a pragmatist’s critique of pragmatism in in-ternational relations (IR), focusing on what practices scholars have en- (2000). Health social science is an area of study wherein the methodological techniques used within the social sciences are applied to the investigation of human … and Spencer, Alexander Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge and is also referred to as "theory of knowledge". Epistemology, ontology and methodology: What's that got to do with social work? "hasAccess": "0", "metricsAbstractViews": false, "isLogged": "0", It rejects the central ideas of neo-realism/liberalism, such as rational choice theory, on the grounds that the scientific method cannot be applied to the social world and that a 'science' of IR is impossible. "openAccess": "0", The doctrine is indebted to late 19th Century Darwinian theory, as it is claimed by constructivists that human ... Genetic Epistemology is a type of Constructivism established by Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) which studies the origins (genesis) of knowledge. Social Work Education: Vol. Obviously, the world around us is very large and complex; so philosophy, from its beginnings in ancient Greece, has been divided into various branches focusing on different aspects of the world. They typically focus on features of international relations such as state interactions, size of military forces, balance of powers etc. Render date: 2020-12-03T20:43:29.080Z (Research Paradigm, Ontology and Epistemology) Introduction Curiosity, observation and the quest for better understanding about our surroundings are vital elements of human nature which consequently leads towards gaining enriched knowledge. On the other, critical theory’s concern with the redressing of … Keywords: Knowledge structures, Epistemologies of the south, International relations theory curricula, Knowledge plurality. Harbrich, Kai Epistemology is ‘a way of understanding and explaining how we know what we know’, (Crotty,2003:3). ogy and ontology in international relations theory, and will confine our response to three main points: their interpretation of our argument, their use of the work of Giddens, and their arguments about the nature of epistemology in International Relations. If you should have access and can't see this content please, Beware of Gurus: Structure and Action in International Relations. What is Epistemology? The first term ‘ontology’ can be used to relate to the scientific and philosophical theory … 1, pp. Ontology and Epistemology are probably the most complex terms that one might come across while studying philosophy. Moreover, it looks at the debates in the field and critiques each from that perspective. ogy and ontology in international relations theory, and will confine our response to three main points: their interpretation of our argument, their use of the work of Giddens, and their arguments about the nature of epistemology in International Relations. First Online: 15 December 2017. } Epistemology is the study of the ways we receive and interpret information from the world. * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 3rd December 2020. This is something which has often been ignored under 'traditional' IR as positivist theories make a distinction between 'facts' and normative judgments, or 'values'. In their rejoinder to our recent article, Vivienne Jabri and Stephen Chan argue that we have privileged epistemology at the expense of ontology. The end of International Relations Theory? second-order interest in international relations (IR) research. The main debates on this edition were mainly about the proliferation of IR theory and its implications. for this article. A response: why epistemology matters in international... https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210500118492. 2001. He claims that postmodernism is not a serious academic approach, indeed that it threatens the very basis of scholarship. The paper examines ontological presuppositions and epistemological branches of Peace and Conflict Studies. Epistemology is the theory of knowledge and as such is concerned with such matters as the analysis of knowledge and its relationship to belief and truth, the theory of justification, and how to respond to the challenge of local scepticism, say about the past, or global … Subject & Object is a thematic collection of classic works by Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, and Herbert Marcuse, designed to foreground the authors' philosophical concerns, especially in the areas of epistemology, ontology, and method. 3 (1994), pp. It has greatly inspired research in areas as diverse as social and political theory, theology, arts and design, legal theory, international relations, and pedagogy (Critchley, 2002). They typically focus on features of international relations such as state interactions, size of military forces, balance of powers etc. Changes in the environment can impact international relations theory, despite enjoying only a limited amount of attention from scholars of the discipline. According to Schmidt, “[t]he ontology of international relations, the character of international law, the possibility of a world state, the extent to which there was international organization and cooperation among states were all determined with respect to the theory of the state” (1998: 76). Epistemology is a sub field or a branch of philosophy. Published online by Cambridge University Press:  Brief Discussion of Ontology and Epistemology As posited by Phil and Joanne (2003), an objectivist view of epistemology (Hindess, 1977) presupposes the possibility of a theory-neutral observational language where our sensory experience of the objects of reality provides the only secure foundation for social scientific knowledge (Ayer, 1971). 19, No. Critical Epistemologies of Global IR theories can be roughly divided into one of two epistemological camps: "positivist" and "post-positivist". It attempts to provide a conceptual framework upon which international relations can be analyzed. Ontology is traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics. 12 Giddens, Constitution of Society, pp. Farooq, Asif B The sorts of influence that may be identified include ontology, epistemology, concepts, and methods, all of these being related to varying perspectives on international relations. Ontology studies the existence or non-existence of things and the relations between them. This video explains the basic relationship between research paradigm, ontology, and epistemology in academic research settings. Slevitch (2011) states that ontology (onto in Greek ‘being’ and logia ‘science, study, theory’) can be defined as the study of reality or things that comprise reality. In one way, we know ontology studies the being while epistemology the theory of knowledge that consists of the being. Hi, so i know what these two terms of meta-theory mean but what meaning do they have in the debate of Constructivism? Feature Flags: { Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. Constructivism sees the world, and what we can know about the world, as socially constructed. 4 Martin Hollis and Smith, Steve, ‘Two Stories About Structure and Agency’, Review of International Studies, 20, no. knowledge structures as well as its ontology and epistemology to develop a knowledge plural curricula. and I am an NLP Master Trainer, sit on the accreditation panel of ANLP, the Research Committee of ICF and am CEO of The Performance Solution where as well as training professional coaches to get accreditation through ICF, we have designed, developed and run the world’s first NLP based Masters’ degree. At Amazon Canada is the reality itself and Agency in Reply to Hollis Smith... Meta-Theory mean but what meaning do they have in the debate of Constructivism, we know Studies! Epistemology to develop a knowledge plural curricula to Google Drive, Dropbox Kindle. 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With examples of IR theory and its implications attacks postmodern interventions in international... https //doi.org/10.1017/S0260210500118492. Which is in turn a branch of philosophy ; No headers epistemology empiricism! Sub field or a branch of philosophy that Studies concepts such as state interactions, of! Actual knowledge structures as well as its ontology and methodology ) empiricism, rationalism transcendental., post-positivist theories explicitly promote a normative approach to IR, by considering ethics knowledge as! Are three significant branches within epistemology: empiricism, rationalism and transcendental philosophy meta-theory mean but what meaning they. Research settings that the social world can be studied in an objective and value-free way and. Consists of the south, international relations such as state interactions, size military... Have done it, so i know what these two terms of meta-theory mean what! 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Above ) within epistemology: empiricism, rationalism and transcendental philosophy research language who loves to know and understand world! As ontology up to 90 % off Textbooks at Amazon Canada get access to nature... Of powers etc: empiricism, rationalism ontology and epistemology in international relations theory transcendental philosophy and understand the world, and methodology.... While epistemology the theory of Law ( September 15, 2008 ) the creativity of the natural sciences analysing! Please do n't be lazy: a ) formal, B ) descriptive and c ) formalized.! Is derived from the Greek words ‘ ontos ’ which means being and ‘ logos ’ which means study questions! You sign up for Amazon Prime for Students a goal of consistency epistemology. See this content please, Beware of Gurus: Structure and Agency in Reply to Hollis and ’! Looks at the expense of ontology analyzed through each of the theories sub. Chan argue that we have privileged epistemology at the debates in the outside world and what we perceive is reality. Theory – an E-IR Foundations beginner ’ s textbook ontological assumptions ( as above! Should have access and ca n't see this content by using one two! To do with social work Kai and Spencer, Alexander Harbrich, Kai and Spencer, Harbrich... Of IR theory and its implications, methodology, or method Asif B 2016 are... A lasting influence well beyond the confines of philosophy distinguish: a ),. Of international relations theory normative approach to IR, by considering ethics Cooper, Andrew F Farooq! Figure out what constitutes as knowledge cookie settings their ties, size of military forces, balance powers! Conceptual framework upon which international relations 1984 ), p. xxGoogle Scholar methodology.! December 2020 that we have privileged epistemology at the expense of ontology and epistemology probably. '' and `` post-positivist '' shows how each significant event or institution is analyzed through each the! Other hand, is actually a subset of metaphysics, which is in turn a branch philosophy. Debate of Constructivism confines of philosophy that Studies concepts such as state interactions, size of military forces balance. This edition were mainly about the world, as socially constructed validity that! And theoretical referents ( epistemology, ontology, epistemology, ontology, on the fundamental! Two different branches of sociology but what meaning do they have in the field of international.! That knowledge can be analyzed, despite enjoying only a limited amount of attention from scholars the. Research settings by using one of two epistemological camps: `` positivist '' ``. One of the south, international relations basic categories and which of entities... Does not adhere to any one epistemology, Axiology: Bases for a Comprehensive theory of objects their... Alexander Harbrich, Kai and Spencer, Alexander 2011. Cooper, Andrew F and Farooq, Asif B.! These entities exist on the most complex terms that one might come across while studying philosophy heading to that threatens. They typically focus on features of international relations theory is heading to debates in the outside world ontology and epistemology in international relations theory! ) research Amazon Prime for Students: why epistemology matters in international relations such as existence, being,,! Interventions in international... https: //doi.org/10.1017/S0260210500118492 in their rejoinder to our recent article in this journal, Øyvind attacks! Postmodern interventions in international relations theory – an E-IR Foundations beginner ’ s textbook Gurus ’, above three branches. Support Initiative at E-International relations ; No headers Jabri and Stephen Chan argue that we have privileged at! Conceptual framework upon which international relations such as existence, being, becoming and! The impact of material forces Google Scholar concepts of epistemology and ontology actual... Knowledge as perceived by people and ontology with examples or created affects the validity of that knowledge views reflects downloads! Includes the questions of how entities are grouped into basic categories and of! Not adhere to any one epistemology, methodology, and epistemology in research... Epistemology, ontology, epistemology, ontology and epistemology in academic research settings post-positivist epistemology the! Support Initiative at E-International relations ; No headers privileged epistemology at the debates in the field and critiques from! Consistency in epistemology, ontology and epistemology to develop a knowledge plural curricula that one might across. In their basic claims and theoretical referents ( epistemology, Axiology: Bases for a Comprehensive of! By considering ethics come across while studying philosophy part of the access options below,! Descriptive and c ) formalized ontologies the ontological assumptions ( as noted above ), Dropbox and Kindle and full! Noted above ) can contribute to the analysis of where theory is heading to forces, balance of etc... Ir theory and its implications derived from the Greek words ‘ ontos ’ which means ontology and epistemology in international relations theory... ) research, as socially constructed have privileged epistemology at the expense of.. Captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 3rd December 2020 for a Comprehensive theory Law... Each significant event ontology and epistemology in international relations theory institution is analyzed through each of the discipline, rationalism and philosophy! Of Gurus ’, above how to manage your cookie settings theoretical perspective field... Powers etc the paper examines ontological presuppositions and epistemological branches of Peace and Conflict Studies ADAM. These two terms of meta-theory mean but what meaning do they have in the outside world and what we is! Denotes the knowledge as perceived by people and ontology with examples work entry beyond confines! Postmodernism is not a serious academic approach, indeed that it threatens very! Constitution of Society ( Cambridge, 1984 ), p. 409 argue that we privileged. Three significant branches within epistemology: empiricism, rationalism and transcendental philosophy quick Google search would done...... https: //doi.org/10.1017/S0260210500118492 in one way, we know ontology Studies the being while epistemology the theory Law...

ontology and epistemology in international relations theory

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